These ads and others like them often include an appeal to put your retirement savings into a precious metals Individual Retirement Account (IRA) either to make your money safer or help it grow faster. There’s generally no minimum investment and the advertiser shows you how to open the account and roll your existing IRA or 401(k) into it. The company then helps you convert that cash into precious metals by selling you gold or silver coins or bullion bars.
In the last 40 years, gold recorded significant gains from 1978 to 1980 and from 1999 to 2011. It struggled during the 90s and after 2011. Fears of inflation and recession led gold to its 1980 highs, while several events caused gold to trade higher after 1999. The September 11 attacks and the war in Iraq held the price higher until 2003. Insurance buying was behind gold’s move higher going into the 2007 recession. It continued its uptrend as the market traded lower, with economic uncertainty as its main theme. Problems in Europe, weaker U.S. dollar, concerns over economic recovery kept the gold price high until 2011.
Then there's the question of how to own it, which is equally complicated, with coins and bullion, ETFs, mutual funds, miners, and streaming companies among the various investment options. However, if you take some time to get to know gold and the different ways in which you can get exposure to the metal, I think you'll find that it isn't as risky as some people think and deserves a small place in your otherwise diversified portfolio.

The overall market has been, however, decidedly illogical. We have both economic and especially geopolitical concerns, yet many gold stocks continue to flounder. That’s what we’re seeing with FNV. Despite a strong outing in its recent first-quarter 2018 earnings report – which produced nearly a 21% positive surprise – shares are down 19% year-to-date.
As you may know, the list of precious metals allowed for a self-directed IRA is pretty short, namely: gold, silver, and platinum and palladium. Purchasing IRS-approved gold coins and bullions is the first step of IRA investing. In order to hold precious metals in a Gold IRA, the user should ensure that their asset meets the fitness requirements set by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The regulations pertaining to investing in precious metals can be found in Cornell University re: Section 408(m)(3) of the IRS code. Failure to meet the requirements set by the IRS may subject the investment to certain taxes. Therefore, it is important to consult a gold investment professional to protect your investment from unnecessary taxes.
Some funds invest in the indexes of mining companies, others are tied directly to gold prices, while still others are actively managed. Read their prospectuses for more information. Traditional mutual funds tend to be actively managed, while ETFs adhere to a passive index-tracking strategy, and therefore have lower expense ratios. For the average gold investor, however, mutual funds and ETFs are now generally the easiest and safest way to invest in gold.

12.12 Customer acknowledges that Rosland Capital may provide information about companies which provide trustee and custodian services for Individual Retirement Accounts ("IRA) as a convenience to its customers. Customer further acknowledges that Rosland Capital is independent from and not affiliated with any of the companies which may provide those services. It is Customer's responsibility to independently select the IRA service company suitable for Customer. Rosland Capital shall have no liability or responsibility for any loss or damage resulting from Customer's dealings with any IRA service company.
That's not to say that there aren't any good gold-related investments to consider, and the precious metal, along with companies heavily tied to it, can offer exposure to a different asset class. So we reached out to three regular Motley Fool contributors for an alternative perspective on some gold stocks worth watching right now, and they came back with Barrick Gold Corp (USA) (NYSE:ABX), mining equipment giant Caterpillar Inc. (NYSE:CAT), and gold streamer Royal Gold, Inc. (USA) (NASDAQ:RGLD). 
Investors should be wary of dealers who encourage them to purchase pre 1933 us gold coins that are priced well above their actual melt value.  Many of these coins are not the least bit rare, even if they have a spiffy plastic case with a grade and a hologram on it. Unless you have money to blow, do not pay more than a few percent over the melt value of a coin unless you are highly knowledgeable about rare coins.  Collecting coins can be a fun hobby, but the field is filled with rip-off artists and inflated prices.
For starters, higher gold prices will directly correlate to higher royalties paid to FNV. That’s the easy and near-term win. The longer-term win could be FNV’s decision to fully fund and develop its Cobre Panama project. The project is one of the world’s largest copper-gold-silver deposits currently being constructed and initial tests for reserves have come back very positive. Franco will own royalties on 100% of the miens production. As Cobre Panama kicks in by the end of 2018, FNV’s cash flows should really start growing.

Many veteran investors prefer gold stocks to bullion. Even investing icon Warren Buffett points out that "bullion produces no income." Investing in the gold miners and dealers offers potential corporate profit opportunities. Still, the price of bullion has a strong influence on the value of a miner's or gold trader's business and therefore, stock prices increase and decrease. Historically, over the long term, solid gold mining and selling companies have produced more profitability than bullion.
Our story starts with the discovery of gold deposits in Nubia. These discoveries fed the Egyptian Pharaohs and their courts with gold for jewelry, which we are still marveling at – over 3,000 years later. Taking a development of the first silver bartering tokens invented by King Pheidon of Argos around 700 BC – the Lydians , under their King Croesus then used gold to mint what we know as coins in the Middle East. Coins could be used to buy goods and services. Portable, easily recognized, and with an exact value. They were perfect for trading. So successful was his invention, Croesus is associated with expressions describing the wealthy, even today. The Romans and Greeks improved on this system of payment, and with their hoards of coinage ran Empires, conquering a large part of the globe. The Conquistadors of Spain then discovered vast troves of Inca and Aztec treasure in South America and transported it back to Europe by galleon in the Middle Ages. Gold was traded, stolen by pirates and thieves, and used by Governments and Kingdoms both legally and illegally, to fight regional wars and expand Empires across the world. So astonishingly valuable was the Spaniard’s stolen fortune, adventurers still scour the globe for sunken ships laden with doubloons and golden jewelry. They spend millions of dollars on speculative explorations to recover the treasure, using the most modern recovery techniques. Throughout this period, gold’s value as a basis for the wealth of nations was established. Those with vast gold reserves were always the “players” on the world stage. It was this gold which gave them the money needed to back up their expansion across continents. In more recent times, after America was “discovered” and settled, one of the most fascinating and incredible stories in the modern era of gold happened. The outcome of this tale founded a State, a major city and more. It is also the reason you may well have a stake in the adventures and explorations of your ancestors, even today! Back in the spring and summer of 1848 – James Marshall discovered gold in The American River at Coloma, California, just north of Sacramento. Word spread and in the fall people came flocking to the area looking to seek their fortunes. By 1849, the first of 300,000 prospectors were staking their claims and panned in the rivers and streams for the placer gold which laced rivers and streams in the hills and valleys of the Sierra Nevada. These prospectors faced hardships which are unimaginable today. They became known collectively as “forty-niners”, due to the year in which most of them struck out to search for the gold. Many died and most of those who made it through disease, sickness, starvation and crime, returned broken and worse off financially than if they had never left their homes! At first the pickings were easy, there was surface gold all over the territory. Many of the original prospectors did strike it rich. An estimated tens of billions of dollars in today’s prices of gold was found and extracted. Once the surface gold was taken – the only way to reach further lodes and veins was not only to dig and create small mines, but also to use newly designed extraction and refining techniques. This needed more men and equipment – and more money. San Francisco became the port for shipping the gold and for bringing in the gear to mine it. A settlement of just a few hundred people when the gold rush began, became an important hub of almost 40,000 people by 1852. This grew to 150,000 by 1870.
Then there's the question of how to own it, which is equally complicated, with coins and bullion, ETFs, mutual funds, miners, and streaming companies among the various investment options. However, if you take some time to get to know gold and the different ways in which you can get exposure to the metal, I think you'll find that it isn't as risky as some people think and deserves a small place in your otherwise diversified portfolio.
We'll cover many of the opportunities for investing in gold, including bullion (i.e. gold bars), mutual funds, futures, mining companies, and jewelry. With few exceptions, only bullion, futures, and a handful of specialty funds provide a direct investment opportunity in gold. Other investments derive part of their value from other sources. (For background reading, see Does It Still Pay To Invest In Gold?)
Gold rounds look like gold coins, but they have no currency value.[43][44] They range in similar sizes as gold coins, including 0.05 troy ounce, 1 troy ounce, and larger. Unlike gold coins, gold rounds commonly have no additional metals added to them for durability purposes and do not have to be made by a government mint, which allows the gold rounds to have a lower overhead price as compared to gold coins. On the other hand, gold rounds are normally not as collectible as gold coins.

A Gold IRA Rollover can occur under a wide variety of conditions. Considering that the 401k is the most prevalent type of eligible retirement plan, it’s what we’ll focus on in this article. Rules pertaining to 401k plans can vary as dramatically as the companies sponsoring them, but some generally common elements include rollover opportunities when: the sponsoring company substantially modifies the plan, the sponsoring company changes the managing custodian, or the employee quits, retires, or is terminated.
That makes rebalancing a portfolio as simple as calling your broker -- for most investors selling gold coins or bars would require pulling them out of storage and taking them a dealer. The problem here is that an ounce of gold is always going to be an ounce of gold. Its value is tied totally to supply and demand. For a purist that's perfect, for most investors however it makes sense to find something that will track gold but provide's a little more upside.  
In this case, if you were to do a Gold IRA rollover, you would have 60 days from the date you receive the funds to deposit the money in the Gold IRA Company or Custodian you have chosen. If you do not complete the transaction within this period, the money becomes a taxable withdrawal and you will face the 10% early withdrawal penalty if you are under 59 1/2. If you are withdrawing from a personal IRA for a rollover to another IRA, there is no tax withholding. But you can do only one rollover per year.
Our story starts with the discovery of gold deposits in Nubia. These discoveries fed the Egyptian Pharaohs and their courts with gold for jewelry, which we are still marveling at – over 3,000 years later. Taking a development of the first silver bartering tokens invented by King Pheidon of Argos around 700 BC – the Lydians , under their King Croesus then used gold to mint what we know as coins in the Middle East. Coins could be used to buy goods and services. Portable, easily recognized, and with an exact value. They were perfect for trading. So successful was his invention, Croesus is associated with expressions describing the wealthy, even today. The Romans and Greeks improved on this system of payment, and with their hoards of coinage ran Empires, conquering a large part of the globe. The Conquistadors of Spain then discovered vast troves of Inca and Aztec treasure in South America and transported it back to Europe by galleon in the Middle Ages. Gold was traded, stolen by pirates and thieves, and used by Governments and Kingdoms both legally and illegally, to fight regional wars and expand Empires across the world. So astonishingly valuable was the Spaniard’s stolen fortune, adventurers still scour the globe for sunken ships laden with doubloons and golden jewelry. They spend millions of dollars on speculative explorations to recover the treasure, using the most modern recovery techniques. Throughout this period, gold’s value as a basis for the wealth of nations was established. Those with vast gold reserves were always the “players” on the world stage. It was this gold which gave them the money needed to back up their expansion across continents. In more recent times, after America was “discovered” and settled, one of the most fascinating and incredible stories in the modern era of gold happened. The outcome of this tale founded a State, a major city and more. It is also the reason you may well have a stake in the adventures and explorations of your ancestors, even today! Back in the spring and summer of 1848 – James Marshall discovered gold in The American River at Coloma, California, just north of Sacramento. Word spread and in the fall people came flocking to the area looking to seek their fortunes. By 1849, the first of 300,000 prospectors were staking their claims and panned in the rivers and streams for the placer gold which laced rivers and streams in the hills and valleys of the Sierra Nevada. These prospectors faced hardships which are unimaginable today. They became known collectively as “forty-niners”, due to the year in which most of them struck out to search for the gold. Many died and most of those who made it through disease, sickness, starvation and crime, returned broken and worse off financially than if they had never left their homes! At first the pickings were easy, there was surface gold all over the territory. Many of the original prospectors did strike it rich. An estimated tens of billions of dollars in today’s prices of gold was found and extracted. Once the surface gold was taken – the only way to reach further lodes and veins was not only to dig and create small mines, but also to use newly designed extraction and refining techniques. This needed more men and equipment – and more money. San Francisco became the port for shipping the gold and for bringing in the gear to mine it. A settlement of just a few hundred people when the gold rush began, became an important hub of almost 40,000 people by 1852. This grew to 150,000 by 1870.
Gold bars are typically what most people picture when they think of investing in gold. COMEX deliverable, 400 Ounce bars are frequently depicted in the movies or shown in Fort Knox. In truth, gold bars come in a variety of sizes for any investor. One ounce bars are the most common since they easy to calculate using the spot gold price which is also based on one troy ounce. Smaller bars like 1 gram can fit inside a thimble. We offer a range of sizes all the way to 100 Ounce gold bars.
A coin or bar dealer will not buy gold from you at the spot price, as they have to factor in their business overheads. They also have to consider the chance that the bar or coin is not what they think it is. Some rarer coins might be quoted at prices above spot, but in gold bullion products like small bars, Sovereigns or Krugerrands, this usually results in you receiving 2-5% less than the spot price when you come to sell.
Don’t be left behind. Join the bandwagon. Gold is more or less like wealth insurance. Don’t allow yourself to lose the purchasing power. The Fed prints more dollars every day which means that the dollars you are struggling to save are not valuable. The only protection you will have against inflation are assets like cryptocurrencies, Silver, and Gold.
Coins, unlike other forms of the metal, are produced in only one country and are viable forms of currency. Because the supply of coins can be as limited as the producing nation decides, sometimes the value of the gold coin in question is heavily inflated due to the scarcity of the coin itself and its value to collectors. This means that even though you may have two coins of identical size, weight, and purity coming from different countries, they will almost never be the same price. For this reason, some coins can serve as great investment vehicles, while others are more collector’s items as their prices will be inflated due to their relative scarcity.
The idea that gold preserves wealth is even more important in an economic environment where investors are faced with a declining U.S. dollar and rising inflation. Historically, gold has served as a hedge against both of these scenarios. With rising inflation, gold typically appreciates. When investors realize that their money is losing value, they will start positioning their investments in a hard asset that has traditionally maintained its value. The 1970s present a prime example of rising gold prices in the midst of rising inflation.

An individual can invest in gold not only by opening a new self-directed gold IRA, they can also move their retirement accounts such as 401(k) and other traditional IRAs to a gold-backed IRA. This helps you to diversify your investment portfolio and preserve your wealth in a secure manner. With a Gold IRA, an individual is rescued from the worry of losing their hard-earned money due to inflation and stock market crises.
Risk Disclosure: Purchasing precious metals in bullion bars, coins, proof coins, and numismatic coins involves a degree of risk that should be carefully evaluated prior to investing any funds in a Gold IRA or making a cash purchase. American Bullion and its agents are not registered or licensed by any government agencies, and are not financial advisors or tax advisors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investors should do their due diligence before committing any money to purchase gold and other precious metals. If you have additional questions, please contact American Bullion.
Precious metal prices can be volatile and the value of your metal may go down as well as up. No responsibility can be accepted by Jewellery Quarter Bullion Limited for any loss caused by acting on information we have provided. We do not offer investment or tax advice and recommend that you conduct your own independent research before making any investment decisions.
But transparency is important. The modern world has audited accounts, and open exchanges, and 'public' companies for a good reason: because previous generations understood that when investment stops being open and transparent, and reverts to cosy secret deals, complex contracts, and big executive bonuses, then it is general investors who get cheated. Transparency helps stop these problems developing.
Investors may choose to leverage their position by borrowing money against their existing assets and then purchasing or selling gold on account with the loaned funds. Leverage is also an integral part of trading gold derivatives and unhedged gold mining company shares (see gold mining companies). Leverage or derivatives may increase investment gains but also increases the corresponding risk of capital loss if the trend reverses.
For those investors looking for variable prices, more designs, and greater options when it comes to the gold they buy, gold bullion bars are an excellent choice. As diverse as gold bullion coins can be, there’s no matching the variety available when you buy gold bars online. Gold bullion bars are offered by private mints and refineries located around the globe. There is no government backing or central bank support, but these refineries have certified assayers (in many cases) checking the quality, purity, and weight of each product before it leaves the refinery. Gold bars feature at least .999 pure gold as well, with .9999 the standard in most products. Further, the weights offered for gold bars range from as small as 1 Gram to as large as 5 Kilograms. The following are some of the many gold bullion bars you’ll find available:
However, people still love the yellow metal. Clearly, a big part of demand comes from the jewelry industry -- we all like nice baubles and trinkets. But a notable amount of demand comes from entities that want to own gold in its physical form via coins, bullion, and bars. That stems largely from the economic history of gold and the resulting view of the metal as a safe-haven investment. If paper money were to suddenly become worthless, the world would have to fall back on something of value to facilitate trade. One of the most logical options is gold, since that was the role it played before fiat currencies ruled the day. This is one of the reasons that investors tend to push up the price of gold when financial markets are volatile.
Physical gold is finite, tangible, portable, and divisible, making it an ideal form of money that can hold its value over time. Although many view gold as a safe haven asset, we also see potential for massive price appreciation. Demand is high around the globe, and gold bullion is highly liquid- almost any bullion dealer in the world will recognize an American Gold Eagle and buy it from you.
Exchange-traded funds, or ETFs, are investment companies that are legally classified as open-end companies or unit investment trusts (UITs), but that differ from traditional open-end companies and UITs.[51] The main differences are that ETFs do not sell directly to investors and they issue their shares in what are called "Creation Units" (large blocks such as blocks of 50,000 shares). Also, the Creation Units may not be purchased with cash but a basket of securities that mirrors the ETF's portfolio. Usually, the Creation Units are split up and re-sold on a secondary market.
The Hard Assets Alliance was created in 2012 by a group of trusted independent financial researchers who believe that every investor should hold physical precious metals for both capital preservation and capital gains. With more than 35 years in the investment world, the Alliance founders are uniquely positioned to facilitate the needs of the average investor.
Gold stocks don't exist in a vacuum. They are affected by the same types of circumstances that affect the rest of the stock market. These include national and international events, rumors and the economy as a whole. Gold mining companies may have other assets and business interests outside of the precious metals industry that can affect their stock value.
Fraser and Pederson advise investors to “Always remember the number one goal of any management team should be to maximize shareholder value.” In addition, Durrett advises investors to pay attention to the websites of management companies and to consider it a red flag if a management company doesn’t send out newsletters and update their website with market trends and news.
Fractional Ownership of Physical Metals: In this scenario, the IRA purchases a fractional ownership of physical bullion that is held in an allocated vaulting account. Often, vendors that offer this asset provide an online marketplace that allows the IRA to buy, sell, or trade their metals. Marketplaces vary in their offerings, but tend to allow more speed and flexibility than the physical scenario above.
The advertisers’ preference for conservative media may be due to the fact that their ads tend to play on fears of financial collapse. The world is a dangerous place, they may say. Excessive national debt, inflation or even global upheaval could hammer the value of stocks, bonds and cash. So protect your money by putting it into hard assets that can survive a crisis — or, as Devane puts it, “an IRA backed by gold and silver, not by paper and promises.”
This is why some investors like to buy gold in a more indirect fashion, via mining stocks. The prices of mining stocks tend to follow the prices of the commodities on which they focus, so there's a logic to this approach. However, because miners are running businesses that can expand over time, investors can benefit from increasing gold production. This can provide upside that owning gold coins never will.
Gold stocks don't exist in a vacuum. They are affected by the same types of circumstances that affect the rest of the stock market. These include national and international events, rumors and the economy as a whole. Gold mining companies may have other assets and business interests outside of the precious metals industry that can affect their stock value.
For starters, higher gold prices will directly correlate to higher royalties paid to FNV. That’s the easy and near-term win. The longer-term win could be FNV’s decision to fully fund and develop its Cobre Panama project. The project is one of the world’s largest copper-gold-silver deposits currently being constructed and initial tests for reserves have come back very positive. Franco will own royalties on 100% of the miens production. As Cobre Panama kicks in by the end of 2018, FNV’s cash flows should really start growing.
Although the U.S. dollar is one of the world's most important reserve currencies, when the value of the dollar falls against other currencies as it did between 1998 and 2008, this often prompts people to flock to the security of gold, which raises gold prices . The price of gold nearly tripled between 1998 and 2008, reaching the $1,000-an-ounce milestone in early 2008 and nearly doubling between 2008 and 2012, hitting around the $1800-$1900 mark. The decline in the U.S. dollar occurred for a number of reasons, including the country's large budget and trade deficits and a large increase in the money supply.
The difference between mint bars and cast bars are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to variations in gold bars. The U.S. Gold Bureau carries a plethora of different sized bars, both cast and mint. One of the most important factors people take into account when buying gold is what size to purchase. As stated previously, gold can be found in almost any weight you can imagine. The single gram or 1 gram bar is about about as small as you can go when it comes to gold bars with investment potential. Sometimes referred to as the "small bills" of the gold world, these tiny bars are just about the size of a thumbtack. The 5, 10, and 20 gram bars are the next steps up in terms of gold bar weights.
14.6 Governing Law; Arbitration. The formation of this Agreement constitutes the making of this contract within Los Angeles County, California, regardless of the manner, timing or location of delivery or receipt of acceptance of this Agreement. The parties agree that Los Angeles County, California is the exclusive venue for filing any action and hearing concerning disputes arising from or relating to the Products or this Agreement. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of California excluding conflict of law principles. CUSTOMER AGREES TO ARBITRATE ALL CONTROVERSIES BETWEEN CUSTOMER AND ROSLAND CAPITAL (INCLUDING ANY OF ROSLAND CAPITAL'S CURRENT OR FORMER OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, MANAGERS, MEMBERS, EMPLOYEES OR AGENTS) ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING IN ANY WAY TO THE PRODUCTS OR THIS AGREEMENT, INCLUDING THE DETERMINATION OF THE SCOPE OR APPLICABILITY OF THIS AGREEMENT TO ARBITRATE. THE ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS SHALL BE KEPT IN STRICTEST CONFIDENCE. THE PARTIES AGREE THAT THE EXCLUSIVE VENUE FOR ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS, INCLUDING ANY ARBITRATION HEARING, WILL BE LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. THE PARTIES FURTHER AGREE TO THE PERSONAL JURISDICTION OF THE SUPERIOR COURT, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, STATE OF CALIFORNIA, TO ENFORCE THIS SECTION. EACH PARTY AGREES THAT IT WILL SHARE EQUALLY IN THE BASIC ARBITRATION COSTS, INCLUDING ADMINISTRATION FEES AND THE FEES OF THE ARBITRATOR(S). EACH PARTY SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS OWN ATTORNEYS FEES RELATED TO THE ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS.

Mainly a part of the discussion when we talk about any gold bullion instrument – premium over gold spot price refers to how much more a product is worth (premium charged) over the melt value of gold present in the gold bullion coin, round, or bar. Factors like their minting source, age, rarity, and collector demand play a critical role when valuing a gold product outside its melt value.
When it comes to purchasing or selling bullion, the market value for gold (also referred to as "spot price") is the basis for all pricing. Almost all products on SD Bullion operate on a spot price plus the product premium (also referred to as "over spot") formula to determine the final price. For example, if the market value for gold is X and the product premium is Y, the final price would be X+Y=Z. Premium pricing is mostly consistent per product but the market value for silver changes vastly on a minute by minute basis. Our market feed integrates live up to the minute market prices from worldwide markets. We offer both live and historical gold prices available on our website's Live Market Prices page. You can customize charts to research and find trends in pricing and compare to other precious metal types.

Prudential Securities: (NY) 212-778-6667. A small investor can open up an account by buying at least 20 ounces. Most clients come from Wells Fargo (Prudential and Wells Fargo have ties), and the company normally doesn’t sell to other individual investors. “We kind of discourage that,” we were told. But you can do it. The purchase has to be made through a wire transfer -- no checks, no charge cards -- and the company does a background check. Prudential buys for 3% and sells the gold marked up for 3.15%. The person we spoke with said the average trade was 50 to 100 ounces. No discount for bulk purchases.
Since 1919 the most common benchmark for the price of gold has been the London gold fixing, a twice-daily telephone meeting of representatives from five bullion-trading firms of the London bullion market. Furthermore, gold is traded continuously throughout the world based on the intra-day spot price, derived from over-the-counter gold-trading markets around the world (code "XAU"). The following table sets out the gold price versus various assets and key statistics at five-year intervals.[5]
In previous years, increased wealth of emerging market economies boosted demand for gold. In many of these countries, gold is intertwined into the culture. India is one of the largest gold-consuming nations in the world; it has many uses there, including jewelry. As such, the Indian wedding season in October is traditionally the time of the year that sees the highest global demand for gold (though it has taken a tumble in 2012.) In China, where gold bars are a traditional form of saving, the demand for gold has been steadfast.
Conservative investors who typically shy away from this sector are attracted to KGC for its relative financial stability. Since the gold market collapsed back in 2013, Kinross has focused on chipping away at its long-term debt. In addition, management cut any excess fat that was holding back the organization. The result? KGC returned to profitability last year.
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